By Dr. Nabil A Haron
Source: Qu’ran, The Miracle of Islam Chapter 2
This chapter attempts to prove, through incidents of the Prophet’s (SAWS) seerah, that the Qur’an was neither written by the Prophet (SAWS), nor any one at his time. The Prophet’s (SAWS) role was to only receive the scripture, comprehend it and know it by heart. Then he conveyed Allah’s (AWJ) words and communicated them to the people with ample explanations and interpretations so that he and his followers may follow its commands put them into action and abide by them.
2/1 The Addressing of the Prophet (SAWS) in the Qur’an:
In the Qur’an, the Prophet (SAWS) was repeatedly addressed and informed of his duties concerning Allah (AWJ), the revelation, the believers and the disblievers and was also repeatedly warned against giving in to the surrounding temptations amd pressures. The Prophet (SAWS) is also reproached in several incidents in the Qur’an and various of his secrets and reflections of his inner soul that he chose to conceal from the people were disclosed in the Qur’an. Hence, it is not reasonable to imagine that the Prophet (SAWS) is addressing himself, or commanding, warning, reproaching himself, and unveiling his own secrets in the Qur’an and then spreading these very same words among the people as if they are of a scripture that must not be abrogated, eliminated or forgotten. That serves as unequivocal evidence that Qur’an is the word of Allah (AWJ) addressed to His human Prophet (SAWS) who deliverd His message as received to mankind with unconditional honesty.
- Directives related to the revelation:
- “Do not move your tongue with it (The Qur’an) to hasten on with it; Surely upon Us is the gathering of it and its all-evident reading. So when We have read it, then closely follow its all-evident reading”(TMQ, 75:16-18).
This ayah was revealed in order to ease upon the Prophet (SAWS) because he used to utter the words of the Qur’an as they were revealed in order to memorize them at the instant.(narrated by al-Bukhary, Muslim and Ahmad).
- “So Supremely Exalted be Allah, The True King! And do not hasten with the Qur’an before its revelation is accomplished to you, and say, “Lord! Increase me in knowledge.””(TMQ, 20:114).
Al-Sady said that the Prophet (SAWS) used to be very hard on himself trying to memorize the Qur’an as it was revealed lest Jibril (Gabriel) may leave before he memorized the ayah. Thus this ayah was revealed to the Prophet (SAWS).
- “We will soon make you read so you will not forget, Excepting whatever Allah decides; surely He knows audible speech and what is concealed” (TMQ, 87:6-7).
Al-Mujahid and al-Kalby said that during the revelation, the Prophet (SAWS) used to recite the ayahs just revealed by Jibril for fear of forgetting them. Thus the ayah “We will soon make you read so you will not forget” (TMQ, 87:6) was revealed.
- “And closely follow what is revealed to you, and (endure) patiently until Allah judges; and He is The Most Charitable of judges”(TMQ, 10:109).
- “And when Our Supremely evident ayat (Signs, verses) are recited to them, the ones who do not hope for meeting with Us say, “Come up with a Qur’an other than this or exchange it.” Say, “In no way (can) I exchange it of my own accord. Decidedly I closely follow (nothing) except what is revealed to me. Surely I fear, in case I disobey my Lord, the torment of a tremendous Day”. Say, “If Allah had (so) decided, in no way would I have recited it (i.e. the Qur’an) to you, neither would He have made you realize (what) it is. So I have already lingered among you an age even before it. Do you not consider.”?”(TMQ, 10:15-16).
Mujahid said that this ayah referred to the pagans in Makkah. Al-Kalbie said it referred to those who mocked the Prophet (SAWS), saying, “O Muhammad brings us another Qur’an that has something that we can ask you about.”
- Warnings and Alerts in the Qur’an:
- “And decidedly they were indeed almost about to tempt you (The Prophet) from (that) which We have revealed to you, that you might fabricate against Us another, and lo, they would have indeed taken you to themselves a (close) fellow. And if we had not made you stand firm, indeed you were already almost about to (seek) support from them a (very) little. Then indeed We would have let you taste the double of life and the double of dying; thereafter you would have found none to be a ready vindicator against Us”(TMQ, 17:73-75).
This ayah refers to a group of people from Quraysh including Abu-Jahl and Umaia Ibn-Khalaf who said, “O Muhammad come and put your hands on our gods and wipe them in respect and we will embrace your religion”. The Prophet (SAWS) really wanted them to join Islam, and hence this previous ayah was revealed in guidance to the Prophet (SAWS).
- “And thus We have sent it down as Arabic judgment. And indeed in case you ever follow their prejudices after what has come to you of knowledge, in no way will you have from Allah a patron, nor a protector. And indeed We have already sent Messengers even before you, and We made for them spouses and offspring; and in no way was it for a Messenger to come up with a sign except by the permission of Allah. Every term has a Book”(TMQ, 13:37-38).
- “And (that) you should judge between them according to what Allah has sent down. And do not ever follow their prejudices, and beware of them (lest) they tempt you away from some (part) of what Allah has sent down to you. So, in case they turn away, then know that Allah wills only to afflict them for some of their guilty deeds; and surely many of mankind are indeed immoral”(TMQ, 5:49).
Ibn-Abbas narrated that some Jewish scholars addressed the Prophet (SAWS) with a proposal, “O Muhammad we are rabbis and if we follow you all the Jews will follow suit. We have a disagreement with some people in our tribe and we want you to be the judge. If your ruling is to our favour we will declare that you are indeed honest. The Prophet (SAWS) declined to do so and the previous ayah was thus revealed.
- “And indeed in case you come up with every sign to the ones to whom the Book was brought, in no way will they follow your Qiblah; and in no way are you a follower of their Qiblah, and in no way are some of them followers of the Qiblah of the others. (Literally: some of them are in on way followers of the Qiblah of some “others”) and indeed in case you ever follow their prejudices even after the knowledge that has come to you, lo, surely you are indeed of the unjust” (TMQ, 2:149).
- “And the Jews will never be satisfied with you, neither will the Nasara (i.e., the Christians) till you (closely) follow their creed. Say, “Surely the guidance of Allah is the Guidance.” And indeed in case you ever (closely) follow their prejudices, after the (share of) knowledge that has come to you, in no way will you have from Allah either a constant Patron or a ready Vindicator”(TMQ, 2:120). It is recalled that the Jews used to try to tempt the Prophet (SAWS) into making truce with them and giving them some time in order that they would follow him, and hence this ayah was revealed.
- “O you Messenger, proclaim whatever has been sent down to you from your Lord; and in case you do not perform (that), then in no way have you proclaimed His Message; and Allah safeguards you from mankind. Surely Allah does not guide the disbelieving people” (TMQ, 5:67). Al-Hassan Al-Basry reported that the Prophet (SAWS) said that Allah had sent him with a message that he, the Prophet, could not bear, knowing that the people would not believe him. Thus, Allah warned him that he should either deliver it or be tortured, and hence this ayah was revealed.
- “Say, “Shall I take to myself as constant patron other than Allah, The Originator (Literally: The Renderer) of the heavens and the earth, and He is (The One) Who feeds, and is not fed?” Say, “Surely I have been commanded to be the first of the ones who have surrendered, ” (i.e. who have become Muslims) and definitely do not be of the associators (i.e., those who associate others with Allah)”(TMQ, 6:14). This ayah was revealed when the disbelievers in Makkah offered the Prophet (SAWS) a share of their property, so that he may become the richest of them all, in return that he would give up the call for the new religion.
- “(say, ) “Then, shall I inequitably seek other than Allah for arbiter, and He is (The One) Who has sent down to you the Book (clearly) expounded?” And the ones to whom We brought the Book know that it is being sent down from your Lord with the Truth, so do not definitely be of the constant wranglers” (TMQ, 6:114).
- “So go straight, as you have been commanded, (you) and whoever repents with you, and do not be inordinate; surely He is Ever-Beholding whatever you do” (TMQ, 11:112).
- “Do not definitely extend forth your eyes to what We have given pairs of them to enjoy; and be not grieved for them, and lower your wing to the believers” (TMQ, 15:88)
- “So (endure) patiently under the Judgment of your Lord, and do not be as the Companion of the Whale (Prophet Yûnus “Jonah”) as he called out, as he (was) made to choke (inwardly)” (TMQ, 68:48).
- “Say, “Surely I possess (no power) over you, either for harm or for rectitude. Say, “Surely never can anyone give me neighborly (protection) from Allah, and never can I find, apart from Him, any shielding” (TMQ, 72: 21-22). Ibn-Garir reported that Hadrami stated that a jinni of a high rank offered to protect the Prophet (SAWS) since he is seeking the protection of Allah (AWJ). Thus, the ayah was revealed.
- The Prophet (SAWS) is almost reproached in the following:
- “Surely, We have sent down to you (i.e. the Prophet) the Book with the Truth that you judge among mankind by whatever Allah has shown you; and do not be a constant adversary of the treacherous. And ask forgiveness of Allah; surely Allah has been Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful. And do not dispute concerning the ones who betray themselves; surely Allah does not love him who has been constantly treacherous, (and) vicious. They seek to conceal themselves from (other) men, (Literally: mankind) and they do not seek to conceal themselves from Allah, and He is with them as they brood by night a saying with which He is not satisfied; and Allah has been Supremely Encompassing of whatever they do. Now, you are the ones (Literally: these) who have disputed concerning them in the present (Literally: the lowly life, i.e., the life of this world) life; then who will dispute with Allah concerning them on the Day of the Resurrection, or who will be a constant trustee for them?”(TMQ, 5: 105-109). This ayah was revealed on the occasion in which the Prophet (SAWS) was about to listen to the defense made by al-Ansar (The Supporters) for Te’ma Ibn-Obairaq who stole a shield from his neighbour and hid it with a Jew to charge him with theft.
- “Allah be clement towards you! (i.e., the Prophet) Why did you give them permission, (i.e., permission to be excused form fighting) till it was evident to you the ones of them who (strive) sincerely, and you know the liars?”(TMQ, 9:43). This is in reference to the permission granted by the Prophet (SAWS) to some hypocrites to not join the battle of Tabouk. The same point is made in the following ayah: “Indeed Allah has already relented towards the Prophet and the Muhajirûn (The Supporters, i.e., the inhabitants) and the ÉAnsar (The Supporters, i.e., the inhabitants of Al-Madînah who sheltered and helped those who emigrated from Makkah) who closely followed him in the hour of difficulty, even after the hearts of a group of them had almost swerved aside; thereafter He relented towards them; surely He is Ever-Compassionate, Ever-Merciful to them” (TMQ, 9:117).
- “In no way should the Prophet and the ones who have believed ask forgiveness for the associators, (Those who associate others with ’ Allah) even if they are near of kin, even after it has become evident to them that they will be the companions (i.e., inhabitants) in Hell-Fire”(TMQ, 9:113). This ayah was revealed after the death of Abu-Taleb, the Prophet’s (SAWS) uncle. The Prophet (SAWS) asked Allah to forgive his uncle although the latter declined to listen to the Prophet’s (SAWS) call to bear witness that there is no God but Allah.
- “And do not drive away the ones who invoke their Lord in the early morning and at nightfall willing (to seek) His Face; in no way are you (responsible) for their reckoning in anything, and in no way are they (responsible) for your reckoning in anything that you should drive them away, and so you would be of the unjust” (TMQ, 6:52). Thisayah was revealed in support of some of the weak Moslems, when the disbelievers proposed that if the Prophet (SAWS) expels them they would attend his meetings and the Prophet (SAWS) really desired that so that they may embrace Islam eventually, and thus the ayah was revealed.
- “In no way can any Prophet have captives until he has subjugated (the enemy) in the earth; you (i.e., the believers) are willing to have the (chance) advantages of the present (life), (Literally: the lowly “life”, i.e., the life of this world) and Allah wills the Hereafter; and Allah is Ever-Mighty, Ever-Wise. Had it not been for a prescription (Literally: a Book) that has gone before from Allah, a tremendous torment for what you have taken would indeed have touched you”(TMQ, 8:67-68). The Prophet (SAWS) and his companions are reproached here for accepting a ransom for releasing the disbelievers’ prisoners of war after the battle of Badr.
- “O you Prophet, why do you prohibit what Allah has made lawful to you, seeking the complete satisfaction of your spouses? And Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful” (TMQ, 66:1). This ayah refers to the Prophet’s (SAWS) choice to not eat honey, for the sake of Aisha and Hafsah (RA) as they have requested this, given the jealousy they harboured for his wife Zainab Bint-Jahsh.
- “He (The Prophet) frowned and turned away, That the blind man came to him. And what makes you (The Prophet) realize whether he (The blind man (Abdullah Ibn-Umm Maktûm) would possibly (try) to cleanse himself. Or that he would constantly remember, and the Reminding would profit him? (But) as for him who thinks himself self- sufficient, To him then you (are eager) to attend, And in no way is it up to you (if) he should not (try to) cleanse himself. And as for him who has come to you endeavoring (to cleanse himself), And he is apprehensive (of his Lord), Then of him you were being unmindful. Not at all! Surely it is a Reminder”(TMQ, 80:1-11). This ayah refers to the incident when the Prophet (SAWS) shunned a blind man, Abdulullah Ibn-Maktom, because he was preoccupied in talking with some of the powerful Quraiyshites, seeking to persuade them to embrace Islam.
- The Qur’an declares what the Prophet(SAWS) has hidden:
“And as you (This is addressed to the Prophet) have said to him on whom Allah has (graciously) favored and you have (much) favored, “Retain your spouse to yourself, and be pious to Allah, ” and you were concealing within yourself what Allah would display, and being apprehensive of mankind; and Allah truly has better right for you to be apprehensive of Him. So, as soon as Zayd had accomplished what he would of her, (i.e., accomplished his purpose, and divorced her. The reference is to Zaynab) We espoused her to you so that there should not be any restriction for the believers concerning the spouses of their adopted sons, when they have accomplished what they would of them; and the Command of Allah has been performed.”(TMQ, 33: 37).
2/2 The Attitude of the Prophet (SAWS) With Respect
to the Revelation:
- In the incident ofifk (falsehood):
In the incident of ifk, the Prophet (SAWS) was in dire need of the revelation to refute the allegations made by hypocrites and slanderers. However, the revelation was late for more than a month.
“Surely the ones who came with the falsehood are a band of you; do not reckon it evil for you; no indeed, it is charitable for you. Every person of them will have whatever vice he earned (charged) to him; and whoever of them took upon himself the greater part of it, he will have a tremendous torment. If the men believers and the women believers had thought good (thoughts) of themselves as you heard it and they would have said, “This is an evident falsehood.” If they had come up with four witnesses against it- yet as they did not come up with the witnesses, then those, in the Reckoning of Allah, are they (who are) the liars. And had it not been for the Grace of Allah upon you and His mercy in the present (life) (Literally: the lowly “life”, i.e., the life of this world) and the Hereafter, indeed a tremendous torment would have touched you for what you press on (i.e., for what you press on talking about falsehood ‘⊃ifk’). As you received it on your tongues and were saying with your mouths that of which you had no knowledge and reckoned it was a simple thing, and in the Reckoning of Allah it is a tremendous thing. And if you had (but) said, as you heard it, “In no way is it for us to talk about this. All Extolment be to You! This is a tremendous calumny.” Allah admonishes you that you not go back to the like thereof at all in case you are believers.” (TMQ, 24: 11-17).
- The Prophet’s denial of his knowledge of the unseen, except for what was revealed to him:
Say, “I do not say to you I have in my presence (i.e., with me) the treasuries of Allah, and I do not know the Unseen, and I do not say to you that surely I am an Angel. Decidedly I closely follow (nothing) except what has been revealed to me.” Say, “Are the blind and the constantly beholding (man) equal? Will you then not meditate?” (TMQ, 6:50)
Say, “I do not possess (any) benefit or harm for myself, except what ever Allah decides; and if I had known the Unseen, I would indeed have got plenty of the most charitable things, and in no way would odious times have touched me. Decidedly I am nothing except a constant warner and a constant bearer of good tidings to a people who believe.” (TMQ, 7: 188)
Say, “In no way am I an innovation among the Messengers, and in no way can I realize what will be performed upon me or upon you. Decidedly I closely follow (nothing) except what is revealed to me; and in no way am I (anything) except an evident, constant warner.” (TMQ, 46:9)
Narrated Ar-Rabi’, the daughter of Muawwidh Ibn-Afra, “After the consummation of my marriage, the Prophet (SAWS) came and sat on my bed as far from me as you are sitting now, and our little girls started beating the tambourines and praising those who died of my parents (father and paternal uncles) in the Battle of Badr. One of the girls said, “Among us is a Prophet who can foretell the future.” On that the Prophet (SAWS) said, “Leave this (saying) and keep on saying what you have been saying before.” [Al-Bukhary and Abu-Dawud]
- The Prophet’s juristic deduction of the interpretation of someayahs, which was contradicted by what was revealed later:
The Prophet’s standpoint concerning offering the funeral prayer on Abdullah Ibn-Ubai, the head of the hypocrites, was scrutinized by Omar (RA) who said, “Do you offer the funeral prayer for him though he was a hypocrite and Allah has forbidden you to ask forgiveness for hypocrites?” The Prophet said, “Allah has given me the choice (or Allah has informed me) saying: “Ask forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them; in case you ask forgiveness for them seventy times, yet Allah will never forgive them; …” (TMQ, 9:80). Then he added, “I will (appeal to Allah for his sake) more than seventy times.”… So Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) offered the funeral prayer for him. Then Allah revealed: “And do not pray at all over any of them (when) he is dead, nor rise up over (i.e., stand over) his tomb; …” (TMQ, 9:84). Thenceforth, the Prophet (SAWS) did not offer funeral prayers for the hypocrites. [Al-Bukhary and Muslim]